Emotional Intelligence is Synergy in Intelligence

Submitted by: Prof. Mohammed R. Ahmed


This year we had a few interesting presentations on Emotional Intelligence. The session titled: “Developments in Conceptualizing and Measuring the Emotional Abilities,” was another interesting session on Tuesday morning. One of the questions raised in the session was whether psychopaths have emotional intelligence, have fear or emotions?

I believe we could rationally answer the question if we first understand what is emotional intelligence. I believe emotional intelligence is the synergy in intelligence that occurs by understanding the emotions of others and managing your own emotions. Synergy is the increase in capacity that results from feeling and managing emotions. The total intelligence of an individual has several components.


The following equation shows the three variables of intelligence. The Total Intelligent Quotient (TIQ) is the function of Intelligent Quotient (IQ) plus Emotional Quotient (EQ) plus Unknown Quotient (UQ).

TIQ = IQ + EQ + UQ

People around the world understand the measurement of IQ, but EQ in my opinion is still at the developmental stage although several researchers claim that they can measure EQ. In my opinion, EQ is the synergy generated by feeling and managing emotions, and there are several unknown quotients that make up the total intelligent quotient. The above is the Model for the emotional intelligence.

To understand how one chooses to use emotional intelligence consciously or unconsciously depends upon the triggering events and the emotional intensity. The model is based on the assumption that every individual possesses emotional energy, and that this level of emotional energy may naturally differ from individual to individual. The triggering event triggers the emotions. How one feels and manages the emotions results in the amount of emotional energy and intensity used to generate synergy (emotional intelligence) for achieving the desired outcome. There are three possible outcomes from the use of emotional intelligence to achieve the desired outcomes, 1) positive, 2) neutral, and 3) negative. The following exhibit highlights emotional intelligence and the possible outcomes as a result of individual abilities and capabilities to feel and manage emotions.

Based on the understanding of the proposed model, I believe psychopaths have intelligence (IQ), and they are good at managing emotions. As a result, they are not afraid of doing things that the normal person considers highly emotional.

Emotional intelligence is not a new discovery, and has probably existed since the day human beings started life on the earth. Every parent may have witnessed emotional intelligence at work while a child was growing up, and may have used some other label or word to explain the emotional intelligence of the child. The best way to understand or measure emotional Intelligence is listening to people, observing their behaviors, and feeling their emotions.


Just Publish it!

Submitted by: Prof. Mohammed R. Ahmed


The advice for recent graduates and junior faculty is to “Just Publish It.” Once you complete your first publication, you build confidence and networks that will help you work on subsequent publications. The first publication may not be the exact research you really wanted to conduct or the journal article you would like to publish. But it is a good start, and if you are motivated and interested in tenure at an educational institution, you will grow and succeed at publishing in the future.

At the session “Getting Published: Tips for Success” the presenters Jane Whitney Gibson, John Humphreys, 
participants Robert C. Ford, Peter B. Petersen, and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba shared their knowledge and experience with doctoral learners and junior faculty. It was an interesting presentation on getting published. The important message was not to merely think of publishing but to start publishing as soon as you finish your dissertation, or before you graduate. The annual meeting is a good place to get ideas for publication, and if you have not gleaned ideas at the meeting, it means you are not paying attention. Voracious reading also can give you ideas for research topics, as well as observing and watching.

If you are interested in publishing, write something new and different. When you are writing, write about something interesting, and write in an interesting and compelling way. Do not write an article for yourself, but for the audience. Before you submit the article to a journal, get feedback from an expert. Structure your paper and maintain a flow to keep the reviewer interested. Learn about the journal and the reviewer’s review criteria before the submission. If you have ideas to keep in mind, put them on paper. If your paper gets rejected, try another journal. If the reviewer asks you to revise and resubmit the paper, do the revision quickly and resubmit it. If you do not have the paper ready for publication, try to write a book review to get your name in the publication.

The above is a short summary of the tips shared by Jane Whitney Gibson, John Humphreys, 
Robert C. Ford, Peter B. Petersen, and Bahaudin G. Mujtaba at the session “Getting Published: Tips for Success.”

Publish or Perish; No Publish and Cherish!

Submitted by: Prof. Mohammed R. Ahmed


Academic institutions require faculty to publish to get tenure and to stay current with the area they are teaching. The demands by educational institutions are clear: publish or perish. A requirement like this without any clear goals, strategies, and evaluation criterion from the institutions is not a good approach. Academic institutions are just interested in faculty getting published in peer review journals or staying current by gaining knowledge. The assumption is that getting published will enhance faculty knowledge and contribute to the intellectual capital of the institutions. These days, several business magazines and journals rank or list schools’ intellectual capital by analyzing the peer review publications that have published articles from their faculty.

Ranking by intellectual capital, number of peer review journals, and premium journals looks good in the pure academic bubble. The problem is that we do not practice what we preach in business schools. We teach business students the importance of goals, strategies, evaluation and control process to determine whether or not the business was successful in attaining its goals. Let’s assume if a business decided to produce products that are certified by the EPA without clear organizational goals, strategies, and evaluation process, it will fail at the marketplace. The company producing a product with certification does not mean that the company will be able to solve customer problems, be competitive in the marketplace, or create value for its shareholders. That’s why it may fail. It is similar to faculty publishing in a peer review journal without a clear organizational goal for the faculty research. Such publication does not guarantee that it will solve a business problem, make learners competitive in the marketplace, or create value for the learners and businesses.

Publish or Perish is the slogan of the past. We should start thinking of Publish and Cherish. We could change the slogan by making business schools have clear goals for faculty research, focusing journal articles on the value of the research to learners and businesses, and developing measures that will help determine the value of the research. Individuals who have spent a significant portion of their lives to achieve a terminal degree are capable of producing research that could be used for solving business and management problems. The rigid constraints of academic institutions without clear goals sometimes make researchers just focus on what is publishable and when it could be published. If academic institutions focus on the value of the research, researchers will be innovative and creative in conducting research and will able to produce and publish research that they cherish for life.

Gender Education in South Asia

Submitted by: Prof. Mohammed R. Ahmed


Distinguished researchers brought this session together with extensive experience in South Asia and with educators in Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. The researchers emphasized that virtual environment of education is making learning a bit easier for both males and females in South Asia. The convenience of online education is especially helpful for females who face more challenges when it comes to attending school due to location availability, transportation, cultural trends, and safety issues in various parts of South Asia.

This session provided a forum for researchers and practitioners who discussed education and management practices in South Asia. They discussed education trends, business practices and challenges facing managers regarding gender disparity in the South Asian countries. They also highlight education and managerial implications in each culture. In particular, they discussed education and diversity awareness as an emerging local challenge for educators, government officials, managers and entrepreneurs who want to take full advantage of qualified males and females. The session chair Bahaudin G. Mujtaba began by reviewing the theme of the session along with the difficulties of managing gender diversity across the Afghan, Pakistani, and Indian cultures. This was followed by Adiqa Kiani’s and Mohammed R. Ahmed’s presentation regarding the status of education and gender challenges in South Asia.


Mindful Performance Improvement Saves Time, Money, and Energy

Submitted by: Prof. Mohammed R. Ahmed


I flew in to Philly early one morning a bit tired. I had an 8:00 a.m. guest speaking engagement at a professional development workshop. Hoping to energize myself before the PWD, I went to the gym at the hotel. While I was waiting for equipment, I overheard two researchers discussing an upcoming paper on performance improvement. From what I gathered, the researchers were suggesting that continuous improvement was the best approach. There was no mention of improvement goals. While I listened to the researchers’ rather loud discussion, I watched people running on treadmills — some fast, some slow — some listing to music and others reading books, and looking at people running at different pace it occurred to me that we needed to use a goal-based approach when focusing on performance. For example, my goal was to perform well at the PWD session that morning. I started to wonder whether standing in line for the treadmill or running on the treadmill was the right thing to do before the presentation. I suddenly realized that we all needed to be mindful when focusing on performance improvement.

I define Mindful Performance Improvement (MPI) as having a goal to do a better job than the competition is doing, meeting the goal, and then benefiting from the fruits of this improvement. If a company demonstrates improvement, but it is not enough to benefit from it at the marketplace, the change in performance is internal. Businesses and individuals may sometimes assume that internal performance improvement is the same as MPI. This assumption stems from a lack of clear goals or a lack of understanding of established goals. We must focus on goals before we focus on performance improvement.

For example, if a person can run one mile in ten minutes but wants to run one mile in eight minutes, the goal is not as obvious as it might seem. That is, does the person ultimately want to compete in a 5K run and reach top ten lists? Or, is the person interested in improved health or energy?

If the person wants to compete in a 5K, the measurement of the goal will be based on the average time it takes for 5K runners to complete one mile. If the top ten runners take 7 minutes to run a mile, the increase in running speed from 10 to 8 minutes will not help him or her achieve the goal, though it will signify improvement. This is an example of internal performance improvement. As mentioned, this is not the same as MPI. If the goal were improving health, the person would use heath care measures recommended by the doctor for attaining MPI.

We need to focus on the MPI approach because, in business, we invest resources to improve performance and, if there are no corporate benefits from the improvement, the improvement is internal, and the firm will lose value in the marketplace. For example, the firm might have improved the quality of service compared to last year, but might still fall behind its competitors. The MPI approach applies to all levels and functional areas of management. It is not limited to operations management or human resources.

The 4Ps of performance improvement are:

1. People (skilled people and leaders)

2. Processes (creativity and innovation)

3. Possessions (knowledge, capital, technology, and information)

4. Profits (short-term and long-term)